- FLUX Power Station™
- FLUX Hydrodyne™ ...
Non Chemical, Eco-Friendly System For Scale Control .............. Go Green!
- Non - chemical environment friendly product manufactured in India.
- Indigenously patented “Flux Magneto Fluid Dynamic Technology”.
- Eliminates toxic chemical handling, storage and pollution.
- Saves man-hours, water, power and energy.
- No external power required.
- Effective continuous “Cathode” protection to the system.
- Protection from scale and corrosion thus increases system efficiency.
- Free product replacement guarantee of 10 years.
- Life long power warranty.
Paraffin deposition is a well-known phenomenon that plagues the oil industry all over the world. Though these paraffin problems can be solved on-shore through relatively inexpensive physical and chemical means, as the oil industry moves into deep water off-shore locations, it becomes increasingly difficult to reach sub-sea flow lines. Trying to solve scale and paraffin problems through traditional methods thus become costly, time-consuming and a serious threat to the economical feasibility of the oil exploration industry. One of the most difficult problems found in the oil field is the build-up of deposits in the well bore, production string, flow lines and even in storage tanks. In the well bore and flow lines, these deposits act as a restriction to fluid flow, causing a gradual decrease in production and, in many cases, as a solid barrier to flow. Unless remedial action is taken, this blockage may cause rod failures, tubing leakage and damaged pump parts, as well as lost production.
Deposits are either organic or inorganic. Inorganic deposits are mainly compounds such as calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate and barium sulfate, usually referred to as mineral scale or simply scale. Organic deposits, on the other hand, can be either in the form of paraffin or asphaltene compounds. Over the years, remedial action for the build-up of deposits has cost the oil industry a heavy financial burden. Unfortunately, conventional mechanical and chemical methods of treatment have been mostly focused on dealing with the effects, not the causes. A third procedure, based on an applied magnetic field, can now be used for the effective removal and inhibition of both organic and inorganic deposits. By subjecting produced fluids to the strong magnetic fields of the Hydrodine™, the deposition pattern is altered without affecting the characteristics of crude oil.
Deposition Mechanism of Inorganic Deposits (Scale):
The deposition of scale from brine water produced with oil is a common problem in injection and waste disposal wells. Scaling takes place when the equilibrium of the brine is altered by changes in the state of the well fluids or by the mixing of incompatible waters from drilling and production activities. Initially, well fluids in the reservoir are in a state of equilibrium. As a well is drilled and production starts, the pressure drop in the reservoir fluids causes dissolved gases to come out of the crude oil and destroys this equilibrium, resulting in the formation of deposits. Also, water from different zones may become mixed in the well bore or injection water may mix with formation water. Incompatibility may result when one type of water contains a high concentration of calcium or barium and the other contains a high concentration of sulfate or carbonate ions in crude oil. As these waters mix, the resulting crude oil becomes saturated with calcium sulfate, barium sulfate or calcium carbonate and deposition occurs. The deposition mechanism is mainly responsible for the physical properties of scale. A rapid deposition pattern will yield soft scales while a slower deposition pattern will form a hard and dense scale, making it difficult to remove. The physical form of scale can be grouped into three categories: thin, laminated and crystalline. Thin scale is the most permeable and easy to remove while laminated and crystalline scale are less permeable and therefore harder to remove.
Factors affecting deposition :
Factors such as pressure drops, temperature changes, super saturation, contact time, pH and the mixing of water can result in severe scaling problems. Scale formation is not usually caused by the action of a single agent. As changes in fluid equilibrium take place, the interaction of these changes with other well conditions plays an important role in the deposition mechanism and affects the final form of scale. This, in turn, has a significant effect on the method chosen to remove the scale.
Deposition of organic deposits (paraffin and asphaltene):
Crude oil consists essentially of carbon compounds and a large number of different compounds of carbon have been found; the simplest being hydrocarbons, those that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons have been divided into various series, differing in chemical properties. The four series that comprise most petroleum are: normal paraffin (alkanes), isoparaffin (branched-chain paraffins), naphthene (cycloparaffins) and aromatic (benzene). Crude oils, according to their relative richness in the hydrocarbons of these groups, are referred to as paraffinic-base, naphthenic-base or mixed-base (naphthenic-paraffinic).
Paraffin (alkane) series:
These are saturated, straight-chain (aliphatic) compounds having the general composition CnH2n+2, by and large, the most abundant hydrocarbons present in both gaseous and liquid petroleum. All the members below pentane (C5H12) are gaseous at ordinary temperatures while those between pentane and pentadecane are liquid. The higher members are waxy solids.
Naphthene (cycloparaffin) series:
Napthenes are saturated, closed-ring compounds having the general composition CnH2n. They resemble the paraffins in both physical and chemical characteristics but are more stable. Cyclopropane and methylcyclopropane are gases at ordinary temperatures and pressures. All the other members of the monocyclic naphthene series are liquid, the most abundant being cyclopentane and cyclohexane. Crude oils with a high percentage of naphthenic members are also called "asphalt-base crudes", in reference to the many complex asphaltic members with higher boiling point ranges.
1. Paraffin deposition mechanism:
Even a slight change in the equilibrium conditions results in the deposition of an amorphous and microcrystalline waxy material known as paraffin. Consistency of the deposit will vary from soft to hard and brittle. The higher the molecular weight of the materials forming the deposit, the greater the difficulty of removal. Paraffin is normally deposited in the >well bore, extending up the production string, and even in flow lines and storage tanks, as a result of the cooling of the oil as it rises to the surface. Loss of solubility as a result of changing the equilibrium conditions of a crude oil is the trigger for paraffin deposition. Temperature and pressure changes, evaporation and loss of dissolved gases are the main causes for altering the equilibrium of a crude oil. Paraffins having the highest molecular weight and melting point are the first to separate from crude oil. This means that the solubility of paraffin waxes in a specific crude oil at a given temperature decreases with an increase in molecular weight and melting point.
Factors affecting paraffin deposition: :
One of the main causes for the loss of paraffin solubility is due to cooling of crude oil produced by: heat radiation during well flow from bottom to surface, gas lifting, liberation of dissolved gas, vaporization of lighter petroleum fractions and water injection. If the temperature of the crude oil reaches its cloud point, the paraffin will start precipitating and begin to congeal. If the temperature continues to go down, small wax crystals begin an interlocking action until the crude oil stops flowing. This temperature is known as the Pour Point. In summary, the higher the cloud and pour points are, the less soluble is paraffin in crude oil.
Pressure has a direct effect on the solubility of the crude oil, keeping gas and the higher petroleum fractions in solution. However, when producing a well there is a pressure drop. The higher the pressure drop, the greater the cooling of the crude oil, which normally takes place at the formation surface. Here, the tiny fluid passages in the formation act as orifices, at which expansion of the gas occurs followed by vaporization of the lighter components as the oil leaves the formation and enters the well bore. This causes the crude oil to cool down, with the result that the solubility of the paraffin in the crude oil is lowered. Another important effect of the loss of lighter components of the crude is seen in old fields. As a field ages, the lighter components are constantly being removed from the crude oil even within the formation. Consequently, the oil is saturated with paraffin even before it leaves the formation since the paraffin is more soluble in the lighter components of the crude oil. This is why paraffin deposition is more severe the older the field becomes.
Sand and silt are examples of formation fines which often act as nuclei for the cohesion of small wax particles suspended in the oil. This makes the wax particles larger, which tend to separate more easily from the oil.
2) Asphaltene deposition mechanism :
Asphaltenes are colloidal solutions, highly dispersed and stable. Asphaltene deposits are usually very hard and brittle hence making removal more difficult. They are insoluble in petroleum naphtha but soluble in such polar solvents as pyridine, nitrobenzene and benzol. Instead of melting when heated, asphaltenes swell and decompose into a coke-like material. Their apparent molecular weights are on the order of several thousand and their chemistry and molecular structure are indefinite. When a solution loses the ability to disperse colloidally suspended solid particles, asphaltene deposition takes place in the well bore. In extreme circumstances the deposits can severely plug off the production string, wellhead and even flow lines.
Factors affecting asphalting deposition::
The balance tending to hold asphaltenes in a stable suspension is susceptible to most of the same conditions causing paraffin deposition plus the composition of crude oil and the nature of the reservoir rock or sub-sea surface.
D) The Technology::
The HYDRODYNE™ MHD Generator System which is an indigenously developed and patented technology. The composition of the magnetic material is a mixture of several rare earth elements in a highly specific alloy percentage metallurgical combination.
There are three major points of difference between the HYDRODYNE™ and ordinary permanent magnets:
1) Magnetic Field Strength:
No permanent magnet in the world can claim coming even close to the strength of 1,00,000 gauss which is the minimum for the HYDRODYNE™.
2) Magnetic Field Intensity:
The intensity of the magnetic field generated by the HYDRODYNE™ is far superior to that generated by regular permanent magnets. An analogy can be drawn to that of the laser. An ordinary beam of light radiates in all directions; however, the laser is an intense beam of light that will not waver from its line of direction. Similarly, whereas an ordinary magnet radiates magnetic lines of flux in all possible directions heading from one pole to the other, the HYDRODYNE™ generates a concentrated field of lines of flux that are available in concentric lines at the location of application and in a direction perpendicular to the flow of fluid.
The collimation of the magnetic fields renders the magnetic lines of flux exactly parallel to each other at extremely high densities. (to the order of millions of lines of flux per sq. cm.). This is in sharp contrast to an ordinary permanent magnet, which has hardly a few thousand lines of flux over the specified area.
E) Working Principles in water based applications:
The principle of working of the HYDRODYNE™ in water based applications works on dynamic (MHD) field generation and fluid ionization.
Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction states that when a moving electrically conductive material (which in our case is water flowing through a pipe) cuts a magnetic field (which in our case is generated by our HYDRODYNE™ installed in line with the pipe but projecting magnetic flux lines on the inside of the pipe) perpendicular to the moving electrically conductive material a direct current is "induced" into the conductive material (which in our case is the water which is charged positive with the pipe being polarized negative).
In the case of the HYDRODYNE™ we create a simple Faraday Generator using Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction by having the HYDRODYNE™ act as the stator or fixed part of the Faraday Generator and the flowing water passing inside the pipe and cutting the magnetic field produced by the HYDRODYNE™, perpendicular to the flow of the water, acting as the rotor or moving part of the Faraday Generator thus converting the flowing water's kinetic energy into electric charges generated on the pipe as a negative polarity and in the flowing water - together with its dissolved solids - as a positive charge.
As per the Faraday's Law, the installation of the HYDRODYNE™ generates a direct current which renders the pipe several hundred millivolts negative and the fluid several hundred millivolts positive. The high amount of magnetic energy also results in partial ionization of the water molecules giving positive hydrogen ions and negative hydroxyl ions. Now the physical nature of the treatment comes into picture. The water chemistry is altered physically, not chemically. Nothing is added to or removed from the water, but changing the relative charge of the pipe with respect to the fluid alters the interaction of the water molecules with the pipe walls and with each other.
The dipolar water molecule’s negatively charged oxygen is repelled by the negatively charged pipe, thus reducing its corrosive effect. The carbonates that cause scaling are negative and hence are repelled by the pipe. They remain in suspension until the water becomes supersaturated at which point they precipitate in the form of soft aragonite sludge at the bottom of the system.
The positive hydrogen ions, which are generated by ionization, are attracted to the pipe. If any scales exist in the system the hydrogen ions attack these insoluble calcium carbonates and form soluble calcium bicarbonates, which easily dissolve in the flowing fluid. Calcium bicarbonate is an unstable compound and readily converts back to calcium carbonate after a period of time, however, as the pipe is now negatively charged, its deposition as scales on the pipe is physically prevented. The descaling process which results due to this above reaction is a very slow process and is more evident in recirculating systems and ones in which the rate of flow is slow enough to ionize a substantial amount of fluid flowing inside the pipeline. Generally, most of the descaling process is a result of the dislodging of the scales, which are physically repelled by the now negatively charged pipe and this is found to be true for large pipelines and once-through systems.
The scale forming carbonates are predominantly a combination of two crystalline forms, calcite and aragonite. Calcite is principally the hard scale, which has a denser crystal lattice than the aragonite, which is a soft scale. It has been documented that untreated water precipitates a ratio of calcite to aragonite of approx. 80%: 20%, while the ratio measures almost the opposite, at 30%: 70% for magnetically treated water. Thus the change in crystal structure of the carbonates after passing through the magnetic field changes their physical property and converts hard scale into soft scale.
F) Working Principles in Crude Oil Applications:
The composition of crude oil as explained above consists of non-polar molecules. The interaction of the high magnetic fields of the HYDRODYNE™ with these constituents of crude thus, cannot be similar in nature to its interaction with the highly polar molecules in brine solutions.
When crude flows through the high magnetic fields of the HYDRODYNE™, paraffin molecules tend to align their poles with the ones of the magnetic field as long as thermal agitation is not excessive. Moreover, the action of the HYDRODYNE™ on these molecules changes both, the electron rotation and the translation patterns, thus changing their orbital angular momentum. This effectively leads to a disturbance in the crystal agglomeration process. In fact, under the appropriate magnetic fields of the HYDRODYNE™, weak dipole moments are brought into existence in the paraffin molecules. These dipoles generate a repulsion force between the molecules, leading to changes in their morphological properties. Also, reduced viscosity and surface tensions result in changes in crystallization properties of the molecules. An effect on the crystallization temperature of paraffins can also be expected from the application of high magnetic fields on a given thermodynamic system of the components of crude.
The effects of the magnetic fields of the HYDRODYNE™ on the changes in crystal lattice structure and crystallization properties, however, depend largely on the composition of crude, the complex nature of which shows innumerable components having different physical and chemical properties.
G) Advantages of the HYDRODYNE™ MHD Generator System:
- Simple insertion type installation with spool insertion or optionally full welding into the existing flow line
- Insertion type device that provides long term treatment
- Inhibits the formation of scale and paraffin and can also remove some deposits
- No external power supply required
- Zero maintenance
- Significantly reduces the need for mechanical or chemical treatments for paraffin removal
- Helps improve production due to reduction of paraffin deposits and asphaltene congealing in well equipment and flow lines.
- Helps remove existing scale and inhibits the formation of new deposits in tubing, well fluid heaters, heat exchangers, separators and other equipment
- Reduction of continuous or batch chemical treatments
- Pigging time is reduced as a result of less build up and softening of new deposits
- Non-producing hours as a result of mechanical failures are reduced due to reduced and softened deposits which cause less physical stress on equipment
- Less electricity consumption due to reduction of restrictive pressure drops created by deposits.
Increases the solubility of crude oil
- Affects cloud point, viscosity and deposition temperatures
- Can increase production by reducing scale and paraffin buildup
- Completely safe for personnel, equipment and environment friendly